It is very likely that you will feel unfamiliar when you go to a movie set for the first time. Even if you have studied cinema school, you will have the same difficulties as someone who does not speak French at all, if you do not know the terms used in the industry. Words that we have never heard before such as Amors, dolly, folly may be confusing and you may not understand what is being mentioned in the environment. When you go to a movie set, you should master the terms used in the industry in order not to be French to the event and to better understand the shooting techniques. That’s why we Terms and Meanings Used in Making Movie We created this blog post titled. İlker Canikligil’s Cinema with Digital Video This article we have created based on the book; will contribute to cinema students and those who want to work on the set.
Terms Used in Cinema
Rule of 30 degrees: Rule that proposes that two camera locations to be used during the shooting of the same subject be at least 30 degrees to each other. Otherwise, it will be difficult to cut because the shots will be similar. It is an old rule.
Rule of 180 degrees: The name of the theory (also known as an axle line) that suggests that the camera stays on one side of its players to maintain directional continuity and consistency on the screen.
4: 4: 4: Sampling method applied when digitizing any image signal. All here
pixels are precisely sampled.
4: 2: 2: Sampling method applied when digitizing any image signal. In this method, not all values (pixels) are sampled as RGB. Since the human eye is more sensitive to brightness changes, the brightness is sampled at half speed while sampling is complete. In other words, 4 luminance samples, 2 U and 2 V samples are stored for each 4 pixel group.
4: 2: 0: It is the sampling method used for PAL DV and DVD video.
4: 1: 1: It is the sampling method used for NTSC DV.
4: 3 (or 1.33): Frame rate of standard TV broadcasts.
16: 9 (or 1.77): Frame rate accepted as standard for HD video.
1.66: The frame rate that European cinema uses the most.
1.85: The frame rate preferred by American cinema.
2.35: The “wide screen” frame rate, which is generally achieved with anamorphic lenses.
Academy: The frame rate of 1.37 determined by the American Academy of Cinema. It is arranged to open the sound belt gap to the edge of the 35 mm film.
AC-3 Dolby Digital is the name given to the multi-source sound system.
AGC: Automatic Gain Control. System that controls the sound recording height in cameras.
aliasing: The name given to the effect of ladder (refraction) on the edges and thin lines of the image.
Alpha: Data that determines which pixels will be invisible in any image.
Analogue: Recording of any signal through simulation. For example, it is a medium that records the plaque sound signal by making copies of the actual sound waves. Analogue systems provide precise recording, but their copy success is low. There is a certain loss in each transfer.
Anamorphic: The general name given to the special lenses used to acquire large images of 2.35. Anamorphic lenses record the image by compressing it from left to right. Reverse processing is performed during the demonstration. Thus, a wider ratio is obtained than normal motion picture.
Anti Aliasing: The method used to smooth edges and sharp lines in any image.
Artifact: The general name given to any distortion in the video field (snow, punctuation etc.).
Aspect Ratio: The ratio of the width of the image to its height.
Aperture: A mechanism that determines the light transmission rate of a lens, also known as a diaphragm or iris.
Bayer Pattern: Dr. A shape developed by Bryce Bayer in 1976, containing two green, one red, and one blue filters at every four pixels to get color from a single sensor system. The whole sensor is covered using this scheme. The resulting image must be “Debayer”.
Black Burst: Refers to a composite signal with a black image in the video field. It is necessary to match many separate instruments in studios.
Black Level: Black level. The lower limit of the black value that can be in any system.
Blu-ray Disc: It is a 50 GB disk format. It is mainly used to carry HD video.
buffer: It means that any data is stored in a piggy bank (cache) before it is sent. Thus, the risk of being cut during shipping is reduced.
Butterfly: The general name given to white fabric drainers that stretch in front of the light. It is especially useful for filtering and softening sunlight when shooting outdoors.
Brightness: Brightness. It determines how much light the pixels emit.
Chroma Key: A method that uses color information to combine two images or make matte easier. For example, placing a map behind the person you shot in front of a blue curtain.
Chrominance: Color information in the video field.
Cinemascope: The name of the wide screen technology obtained with anamorphic lenses. Uses the 2.35: 1 ratio.
Cinematography: The art of moving objects and people. It is often used for motion picture. It includes elements such as light, composition, camera. The term Digital Cinematography is used when working with digital cameras.
Cinematographer: General name given to cameramen (cinematographer) who generally deal with motion picture.
Circle of Confusion: It relates to the situation where a distant point (such as a star) for any format exits from the point and becomes disc. The smaller the format, the larger the circle of confusion. For example, when you look at the small LCD on the camera, an image that you think is clear (that is, as a point) may appear clear on the big screen. The human eye also has a circle of confusion value. It directly affects the subject of depth of field. As the movie format grows, the circle of confusion shrinks, so the depth of field is reduced..
Closed Captioning: Subtitle option built into the video signal. For PAL, this data is added to line 22 or 334.
CMYK: Color creation method used in color printing systems.
codec: A term derived from the words Compression Decompression. It is the generic name for the methods that determine how to compress and decompress a video data. For example DV Codec, Mpeg2 codec etc.
Color Bars: A test signal produced for use as a reference to colors.
Color Temperature: Color temperature. The phenomenon related to the light explained by the physicist Kelvin. Accordingly, each light source produces a certain color of light. This degree is called the degree of kelvin. Sunlight gives out 5500K worth of light. As the value decreases, the color goes orange and the blue goes up.
Component Video: Image signal in which RGB (or YUV) information is transmitted by separate cables.
Compression Ratio: The compression rate of any data. For example, DV has a compression ratio of 1: 5. In contrast, DVD Video runs at a compression ratio of approximately 1:10 or higher.
Contour: The line that surrounds any object.
Contrast: Contrast. Cinema is one of the concepts used in TV and visual arts. In the context of video technology, it refers to the scale between black dots and white dots. High contrast actually means a rich tonal range. Low Contrast is when black and white are close to each other.
Continuity Editing: Continuity fiction. It is the most used fiction logic by Hollywood. Here, fiction is carefully hidden. The cuts are softened or stored with various techniques in such a way that the ordinary audience cannot see. Thus, the illusion of spatial and temporal continuity is maintained.
Crab Dolly: A dolly type with a jib arm, albeit very short.
Dailies (Rushes): The name given to the material obtained at the end of any shooting day.
Day for Night (American Night): It is a method of shooting a scene that should give a night view during the day. It is done with techniques such as putting a blue filter in front of the camera and exposing two f-stops underneath. The attack scene at the beginning of the movie “Jaws” (direction: Steven Spielberg 1975) is an example of this. It has taken this name because it is widely used in American Cinema.
dB: Abbreviation of the word decibel. It is used to express any electrical power.
Deep focus: It can be translated in depth. The fact that the depth of field is too high indicates the situation. He was frequently used by cinematographer Gregg Toland in the movie “Citizen Kane” (direction: Orson Welles 1941). In this method, depth of field is increased and staging is done in depth. It is a very light method. It allows to tell the story without cutting and naturally.
Digital: Expressing any signal (image, sound) in binary system (with zero and one). Thus, there is no loss during transfer. However, there is a loss when selecting the sampling rate and depth during the digitization of the signal.
Digital 8: The name of the format Sony released in 1999. This system records DV data to the previous generation Hi 8 tapes.
DIT (Digital Imaging Technician): Responsible for all technical issues when filming a movie with digital video.
Dissolve: Transition method, also known as passing, melting, overlapping. In this method, image B appears on image A. Meanwhile, B gradually disappears.
Dolby Digital: Six-channel sound system developed by Dolby laboratories. The five channels are used for normal frequencies and the sixth channel is used for bass frequencies. It is a compression format. It is widely used in DVD and cinema.
Dolly: Small car walking on the rail. The camera carries the camera operator and sometimes the director.
DP / DOP (Director of Photography): Director of photography.
DTS – Digital Theater Systems: It is a multi-channel audio system that rivals Dolby Digital. Unlike Dolby, the sound of the movie is played from a separate media (DVD). There is only sync information on the film.
DV: Abbreviation of Digital Video. It is also the name of the system (also known as Mini DV) that recorded digital video on 6.4 mm thick tape, which was produced jointly by many camera manufacturers in 1995. It is one of the last formats that use tape. DV Codec uses 4: 2: 0 sampling with a compression ratio of 1: 5, it can be transferred losslessly with a firewire connection.
DVI (Digital Visual Interface): The interface used to connect monitors to computers numerically. Thus, the signal loss and interference is reduced to zero.
DVCAM: It is the name of the format that uses the same codec structure as the Mini DV, and can only record for less time because the speed of the band rotation is higher, but thus reduced the possibility of error (drop out).
DVR – Digital Video Recorder: It is the name given to digital image recording systems to disk rather than analog (example) recording with tape technology.
DVD: Digital Versatile Disc are the initials of the words. They are discs with a capacity of 4.7 GB (single layer) or 9 GB (double layer). With MPEG2 compression, up to four hours of images can be stored on these discs.
DVD Audio: DVD discs can carry sound between two and six channels at sampling rates ranging from 44.1 to 192 Khz and at a depth between 16 bits and 24 bits.
DVI – Digital Visual Interface: The interface used to connect monitors to computers numerically. Thus, the signal loss and interference is reduced to zero.
Diaphragm: See: Aperture
Dissolve: Transition method, also known as passing, melting, overlapping. In this method, image B appears on image A. Meanwhile, B gradually disappears.
Dubbing: Making a movie later in the studio.
Emulsion: (Fr. Emultion): In Turkish, it is used as an emulsion from French. Refers to the light-sensitive chemical material in the field of cinema.
Exposure: Exposure. It is the meeting of any sensitive material (CCD, film, tube, CMOS) with light. It must take place at the right time and amount. Otherwise, because the sensitive material sees too much light, it produces an erroneous result (The phrase “film burned” expresses this situation. There is nothing burning.)
Exposure Meter or Light Meter: (Fr. Posametre)Light meter instrument.
Exterior: It is used in terms of external attraction.
Field: The name given to the half frame in interlaced video systems. A square is sent as two fields.
Fine Grain: Fine Grain film. Cinema and photo films can be of different sensitivity. As the light sensitivity decreases, the particles forming the film become smaller. This means that higher quality images can be produced.
Firewire: The data transfer protocol that Apple named Firewire when it was developed, whose real name is IEEE 1394. I-Link uses the same protocol.
Flickr: Flickering if the video playback speed (fps) on the screen is low. A similar flicker also occurs when there are field problems.
Foveon: The name of the company that has developed a method of obtaining an alternative color to Bayer. Foveon sensors have three layers, RGB. The company, which was founded in 1997, was purchased by Sigma Corporation in 2008.
FPS – Frames per Second: The number of frames per second. 24 for cinema, 25 for PAL video, 30 for NTSC video.
Frame: Square. An SD video frame usually consists of 800 * 600 dots.
Frame Rate: The number of frames displayed per second.
Focal Length: Focal length. It is the expression in millimeters of the distance between the film or the CCD plane and the optical center of the lens when it is focused on an object at infinity distance.
F-stop: It is the unit used to measure different aperture ratios of a diaphragm (iris) mechanism. It progresses as 1 – 1.4 – 2 – 2.8 – 4 – 5.6 – 8 – 11 – 16 – 22.
Gamma: The light sensitivity of cameras and monitors is not linear: the change in low light can make a big difference, while changes in the light do not make the same difference. If the data from the camera was given linearly, it would have created a very dark picture. For this reason, it is necessary to make corrections (Gamma Correction) with a certain formula. For more detailed information Distance Look.
Gamma Correction: It is the process of correcting the RGB data according to the response curve of the monitor before it is displayed. It is also used in color correction software to change middle values (without touching the upper and lower ends).
HD-DVD: It is a disk format with a capacity of 30 GB. It couldn’t hold against Blu-ray.
HD: High Dynamic Range. A method for recording the same frame with several different exposure values and software-increasing the relatively narrow dynamic range of the sensors. He was using it for photography first. It was later applied in the video field.
The HDSL: High Definition Single Lens Reflex. Abbreviation for describing DSLR cameras that can shoot videos that have appeared since 2008.
HDMI: High Definition Multimedia Interface. End-user interface designed to transmit high definition video digitally.
HDTV: High definition television system. Full HD should be 1920 * 1080.
Hi8: An enhanced version of the Video 8 format announced by Sony in 1985.
HSI – Hue, Saturation, Intensity: Color, saturation and brightness (also known as HSV and HSL).
Hue: The wavelength of color.
Indoor: Indicates that tungsten halogen lamps are used in cinema TV technique.
Interframe: Used for codecs that compress between frames. For example h264 is such a codec.
Interior: It is used in the sense of interior space in Cinema TV.
Interlaced: Producing and sending a square in two separate parts.
interpolation: Using mathematical methods to produce additional information. For example, if you use this method to enlarge an image, new pixel values are inserted. This does not mean that the resolution is increasing, but there is a softer magnification.
Intraframe: It is used only for codecs that compress within the frame.
jitter: Don’t jump. Very short increase or decrease in any signal.
JPEG: An image compression method developed by the Joint Photographic Expert Group. It takes the name M-jpeg when used for moving images.
Luminance (Luma): Brightness data in the video field.
Mise’s Scene: French is read as a letter. It is the staging of any event for the camera (English: Staging). New Wave filmmakers brought the distinction between Auteur (creative) and Metteur En Scene (staged). According to this, some directors are the true creators of their films. Other directors are only interested in effectively filming an existing script. According to the New Wave, they have no creative contribution. It is an outdated theory.
Moiré: An unwanted error on the video. Color errors occur when the system is unable to resolve any frequencies. For example, if you appear on a screen with a very thin square shirt, this effect known as scanning occurs because you will exceed the limits of the CCD.
Monochrome: Consisting of one color.
Montage: There is a difference between editing and montage. Fiction is usually about the continuity and rhythm of the movie. Assembly is a collage made within the framework of any concept regardless of continuity. Soviet cinema had advanced very much in this regard. Sergei Eisenstein is known in this field for his theoretical writings as well as for his films. His “Potemkin Battleship” (1925) film is a lesson in montage.
Montage Sequence: Used as an assembly sequence. It is the general name given to the scenes where an idea is told by combining various shots, usually accompanied by music, without any continuity. For example, our boxer is preparing for the big game. Music begins. Meanwhile, we see our boxer working, running, walking, eating, and weighing in various environments. In the Turkish cinema industry, it is known as music sub.
mpeg: The compression method recommended by Motion Picture Experts Group. Unlike Jpeg, it also compresses between frames.
Mpeg1: The standard produced for Video CD. 1.5 Mbit / s. allows data transfer.
mpeg2: The standard produced for DVD video. 15 mbits / sec. allows speeds up to.
Non-Square Pixel: It takes this name if the height and width of a pixel are not the same. For example, DV 720 * 576 uses Non square pixels. In contrast, Adobe Photoshop uses square pixels. Therefore, the file you will prepare for DV in Photoshop should be 768 * 576. Otherwise, the picture is transferred to DV, printed.
NTSC: American TV standard set by the National Television Standarts Commitee.
PAL – Phase Alternation Line: TV system used extensively in European countries.
PAL PlusPAL signal with a ratio of 16: 9. Its use is not common.
Pixel: Abbreviated form of picture element words. Identifies the dots forming the image. All technical images consist of points.
Primary Colors: Primary colors: R (Red), G (green), B (blue).
RAW: Raw data from CCD or CMOS. This image data created before compression is much better quality and much more suitable for color correction.
Recce: (From the military term “reconnaissance”) Before going to a movie, it means going to the place and making discoveries about light and editing.
Resolution: Resolution. It is the number of points that make up any technical image. The higher this number, the more detailed the image.
RLE – Run Length Encoding: The most basic data compression method. It works on the basis of finding and compressing repetitive parts in a data stream. It is lossless but not suitable for video applications.
Rolling Shutter: Sensor system based on reading pixels one by one.
Rushes: Daily shots of a movie.
sampling: Sampling of a signal for digitization.
Scan Line: A vertical line of about 625 pixels, usually in a video system.
SCART: 21-pin cable developed to easily connect TV and similar appliances. It is possible to make RGB or YUV connection with this cable.
Scene: (Scene): The gathering of shots with any semantic or spatial integrity is called a scene. For example, the kitchen scene, the murder scene, the sex scene.
SDI – Serial Digital Interface: A data transfer interface that can carry 1.4 Gb / s data and is usually found in professional tools. We can say that it is much faster than Firewire.
SECAM: TV system common in France and Africa.
Sequence: It is the whole of a combination of scenes connected with each other. For example, the run-out chase sequence. Such sequences generally include several scenes that take place at different locations.
The second meaning is: The name given to the fiction file you are working on in a NLE software.
Sequence Shot: French Plan séquence is used. It is the realization of the whole scene in one plan. It usually includes camera movement. In the history of cinema, there is a single plan movie from the beginning: Russian Ark (direction: Aleksandr Sokurov 2002)
Set: Everywhere filming is done is the set. For example, “Make silence on set!” as in the sentence. Sometimes it is also used to mean “the place where the decor is installed”: “Let’s shoot this scene on the set.” As in the sentence.
shot: The French equivalent is embedded in our “plan” language. It is the smallest piece of attraction. It is produced between the start and stop of the camera.
SNR – Signal to Noise Ratio: The ratio of faulty signal to fault in a system.
Split Screen: It means split screen. Two separate shots are combined in one frame. It is a technique that is widely used in scenes where the same actor plays in two roles.
Stop Motion: It is the technique of displaying any object at intervals. Thus, still objects can be animated, filled with objects when the screen is blank, etc.
SMPTE – Society of Motion Picture and TV Engineers:Association of Cinema and TV Engineers
Square Pixel: Square pixels. Two sides of this type of pixel are of equal length.
Super 35: The name of the method for obtaining a wide frame by using the part of the 35 mm film reserved for the sound belt for image exposure.
Superimposition: It is the display of two or more images in a row. The difference from Dissolve is that it takes longer and the images do not replace each other.
Super VCD: A Chinese-developed version of the Video CD. It had a transfer speed of 2.6 Mbps. It left its place to DVD without becoming widespread.
S-VHS: Semi-professional format released by JVC. Semi component was a system.
S-Video: Entry-exit port of systems that transmit color and brightness information separately. It is common in semi-professional systems.
Taken: It is used again. Any shots (plan) are repeatedly done. Especially in the cinema, a shot cannot usually be made in one go. The director can do it over and over again until he is convinced. Stanley Kubrick was very famous in this regard. It is known to do hundreds of repetitions and infuriate players.
THX: The name given to the general sound recording and playback standards in the cinema area determined by Lucasfilms’ sound related section.
Timelapse Photography: It means shooting at regular intervals. It’s actually a kind of Stop Motion footage. Here, for example, when the clouds are drawn and played at certain intervals, the movements lasting for hours can be watched within 10 seconds. “Koyaanisquatsi” (direction: Godfrey Reggio 1982) is one of the best known examples of this technique.
TTL: Through The Lens: It is the measurement of any exposure system after passing through the lens. In cinema cameras, there is generally no TTL measurement.
Ultra HD: Generic name for television broadcasts in resolution 4K or higher. It is known as 3840X2160 pixels. It can support up to 8K.
Video 8: The name of the video system that Sony recorded in 1985 on 8 mm cassettes. It was then updated to H, 8 and Digital 8.
Video CD: Generic name for systems that record images with mpeg1 compression to disks that can carry 700 MB of data. Although it attracted attention with its cheapness, it could not hold onto the DVD.
Voice Over: The external voice that speaks to the movie.
Y / C: Another name for S-Video. Brightness / Color.
YUV: It is a coding method that is produced because black and white receivers cannot read an RGB color system. Y denotes brightness, and U and V denote color values. That is, the three-channel image, which is RGB, is converted into a brightness channel and 2 color channels. In fact, it should be written as YCbCr (Y = Luminance, Cb = Chroma Blue; Cr = Chroma Red) but it is written as YUV because it is inverted to the language.
widescreen: Generic name given to frame ratios greater than 4: 3.
Wipe: Deletion. Any image replaces another by deleting or pushing.
Wild Sound: Exposed sound (without shooting).
Zoom: Focal length change, also known as optical shift. It is used to enlarge the image in NLE systems.